Dr. Alan Kazdin is a former president of the American Psychological Association (APA) with numerous publications to his name and who, in 2000, edited the APA/Oxford University Encyclopedia of Psychology . Much of his professional work has focused on externalising disorders and problems in young people. These includes disorders that result in antisocial or disruptive behaviours such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD).
Devising effective, evidence-based treatments for these disorders is important. For instance, ODD often occurs alongside CD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and it has been argued that it is a better predictor of depression than depression itself. This does not mean that effectively treating ODD will necessarily help prevent depression, but this is a plausible possibility, and the effects of ODD are damaging enough on their own to make such efforts worthwhile.
The causes of externalising disorders are not fully known, although it…
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